The New York Times Reviews COOL

What Would We Do Without It?
A Look at Our Love Affair With Air-Conditioning
by Sam Roberts | NYT Bookshelf
SEPT. 19, 2014

With summer just about officially over, we can dispassionately explore what the world was like a little more than a century ago, before Willis Carrier installed his “apparatus for treating air” in a Williamsburg, Brooklyn, printing plant.

“I live in New York, a city that doesn’t exist without air-conditioning,” Salvatore Basile writes in “Cool: How Air Conditioning Changed Everything” (Fordham University Press).

To Americans, New York is a Northern city, but in his breezily anecdotal book, Mr. Basile reminds readers that we practically share a latitude with Madrid, if not the siestas. The heat could be brutal, particularly when 5,000 ceiling fans, while the largest such installation in the world, were all that cooled the city’s subway cars.

Air-conditioning was not just about comfort.

It triggered a cultural and demographic revolution.

It made windowless offices, work and retail spaces and entertainment venues possible (and also permitted the introduction of heat-generating computers).

It also diminished street life.

And beyond New York, it made living in the Sun Belt bearable, shifting not only jobs and population there, but also political power.

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What Would We Do Without It? A Look at Our Love Affair With Air-Conditioning by Sam Roberts | NYT Bookshelf SEPT. 19, 2014 With summer just about officially over, we can dispassionately explore what the world was like a little … Full Story

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WSJ Book Review: The Routes Not Taken by Joseph B. Raskin

The Wall Street Journal
BOOKSHELF

Book Review: ‘The Routes Not Taken’ by Joseph B. Raskin
By JULIA VITULLO-MARTIN
April 11, 2014

The Second Avenue subway was first proposed in 1929. It will begin operation—perhaps—in 2016.


Three things enabled the population density that made New York rich, diverse and dominant throughout much of the 20th century: Manhattan’s street grid, Central Park and the subway system. The crowded, contentious city of today would be unthinkable without the grid’s arrow-straight streets, which expedited vehicle and pedestrian flow, and the extensive subway system, which transported people to most of the places they wanted to go. But as New York has undergone yet another surge in population—some 8.3 million people lived in the city in 2013, projected to grow to 9.1 million by 2030—it has been grappling with the limits imposed by its aging infrastructure. Most important, its subway system has barely expanded—though this is not for lack of trying over the past century.

Joseph B. Raskin’s “The Routes Not Taken” lays out the planned underground labyrinths that were never built. The book couldn’t be more timely or relevant: Some of the routes now being built (the Second Avenue line, for example, which is to run along Manhattan’s East Side) or recommended (the extension of the No. 7 Flushing line westward under the Hudson River to New Jersey) were carefully analyzed and seriously proposed decades ago—the extension of the Flushing line in 1926, the Second Avenue subway in 1929. But “no proposal for a line,” Mr. Raskin writes, “enjoyed an easy path.” The author, an official at New York City Transit, uncovers and explores dozens of abandoned routes and chronicles the many ghost tunnels and stations that have been nearly forgotten or have come to be regarded as urban myths. It’s a wonder, he concludes, “how lines have ever been built.”

In presenting lively, though sometimes overly detailed, case studies of what he regards as the most important unbuilt lines, Mr. Raskin encourages his readers to think about the adaptable nature of the city. Had the other boroughs gotten a crosstown subway, linking them with one another as well as Manhattan, they would be profoundly different, and probably far wealthier, today. By focusing on the negative—what didn’t get built—Mr. Raskin forces us to ponder what the city is, what it could have been, and what it still could be.

Earlier generations fully appreciated the subway’s ability to bring development and wealth to underserved sections of the city. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, rising neighborhoods such as Harlem in Manhattan and Flatbush, Midwood and Manhattan Beach in Brooklyn were marketed with an emphasis on access to transit. And that strategy applied even to upscale buildings: In the 1890s, William Waldorf Astor sited his elegant apartment houses on subway stops to attract the swells. The old planners also understood the potential downside of elevated lines, which could move people but blight neighborhoods. “There is such a thing as the defacement of a city,” said W.C. DeWitt in 1889, representing Brooklyn’s Fulton Street property owners. A strong shared civic understanding made possible the capital commitment and construction of transit even as communities and their representatives fought over details.

As Mr. Raskin shows, the old New Yorkers were every bit as irascible, contrarian and territorial as their successors. The transit system, under the authority of the state, isn’t under the control of the mayor or the city council. And the residents of each borough have their own interests to look out for. In its campaign for a subway, the Queens Chamber of Commerce trumpeted: “Should the Bronx grow as Flushing stands still? Shall the Third Ward pay for the growth of Yonkers, Mt. Vernon and White Plains?”

The underlying problem was, and remains, that most basic of political questions: Who benefits? Some neighborhoods prospered while others stagnated. Many New Yorkers assumed that wealthier and more privileged areas were being preferred. “The only time you get to the Northeast Bronx is when you are on your way to the Yale Bowl to see the Yale and Harvard game,” said Bronx assemblyman Joseph Kinsley to a city planning commissioner in 1929, discussing the never-built Burke Avenue line. In 1953, the Brooklyn borough president accused the New York City Transit Authority of behaving like “a prince in Manhattan and a pauper in Brooklyn.” He refused to support any plans that excluded Brooklyn.

At the heart of these disagreements was a conflict between two legitimate points of view: Some thought that transit should benefit the city’s farthest regions and beyond, while others urged transit for the densest neighborhoods. Cost was always, as Mr. Raskin notes, “the daunting factor.” Elevated lines might blight, but they were relatively cheap to build. Underground lines were tremendously expensive. And even though construction was financed from bonds that came due well into the future, many New Yorkers felt they were paying in the here and now to benefit unborn generations.

In practice, New Yorkers weren’t even paying for ongoing expenses. Because the city’s mayors, and often the newspaper editorial boards, opposed fare increases, the fare stayed at a nickel for 44 years, not doubling to 10 cents until 1948. The result was that a concept of “deferred maintenance” was present almost from the beginning. When the system got new money, even for capital construction, it was often diverted to maintenance.

When money was finally found for a new line, all sorts of obstacles could cause delay. The repeated postponement of the Second Avenue Subway is the most famous example. Over the decades, construction has proceeded in fits and starts. The latest big push began in 2007, as crews started boring tunnels from 96th Street down to 63rd. The daily cost of massive under- and above-ground construction to businesses and residents has been immense. Once finished, the line will likely deliver equally immense benefits, but not to those businesses that went bankrupt or to the residents who moved out in despair.

—Ms. Vitullo-Martin is a senior fellow at the Regional Plan Association, a research and advocacy organization.

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The Wall Street Journal BOOKSHELF Book Review: ‘The Routes Not Taken’ by Joseph B. Raskin By JULIA VITULLO-MARTIN April 11, 2014 The Second Avenue subway was first proposed in 1929. It will begin operation—perhaps—in 2016. Three things enabled the population … Full Story

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Warm-Up-to-Winter Book Sale! (50% OFF)


NYT Bookshelf: Immigrants and Red Scare Case Studies

1/10/14
Bookshelf  The New York Times
By SAM ROBERTS

“Their collective stories illuminate the personal costs of holding dissident political beliefs in the face of intolerance and moral panic,” Professor Deery writes, “and this is as relevant today as it was 70 years ago.”

Back in the 1950s, when an American Communist Party leader was deported to Britain on the Queen Elizabeth, The New York Daily News, wholly unsympathetic, captured him waving in a front-page photograph with the playful headline “Red Sails in the Sunset.”

Phillip Deery, a history professor at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia, takes a grimmer view of the human consequences of the Red Scare in the 1940s and 1950s in “Red Apple: Communism and McCarthyism in Cold War New York” (Fordham University Press)

He focuses on six individuals, including Lyman Bradley and Edwin Burgum, who taught at New York University; the writer Howard Fast; and O. John Rogge, who would become the lawyer for David Greenglass, whose testimony sent his sister and brother-in-law to the electric chair in the Rosenberg spy case. Read NYT article

1/10/14 Bookshelf  | The New York Times By SAM ROBERTS “Their collective stories illuminate the personal costs of holding dissident political beliefs in the face of intolerance and moral panic,” Professor Deery writes, “and this is as relevant today as it … Full Story

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New York Post: Industrial Sublime is a Must-Read!

ENTERTAINMENT

REQUIRED READING
By Billy Heller

Industrial Sublime Modernism and the Transformation of New York’s Rivers, 1900-1940
edited by Kirsten Jensen and Bartholomew F. Bland  (Fordham University Press)

From the 1820s through the turn of the 20th century, artists of the Hudson River School painted the pastoral landscape along the river. As industrialization and commerce along the river increased, a group of artists continued to paint the area but shifted their focus to the teeming metropolis growing along the waterfront. The more than 150 images in this gorgeous collection include bridges, tugs, waterfront shacks, skyscrapers and smokestacks from artists such as Robert Henri, John Sloan, Georgia O’Keeffe and Edward Ault.

The Yellow Eyes of Crocodiles
by Katherine Pancol  (Penguin)
Will a trendy Parisian novel from 2006 become the très chic accessory in 2014 New York? Pancol’s tale follows Josephine Cortes, a homely French scholar of Medieval history whose unemployed husband runs off with his mistress to manage a crocodile farm in Kenya. But everything changes when her glamorous, wealthy sister, Iris, convinces Josephine to write a 12th-century romance novel — in Iris’ name — and the book becomes a runaway bestseller. Mon dieux!

The Purity of Vengeance
by Jussi Adler-Olsen  (Dutton)
Copenhagen cop Carl Mørck returns with a new cold case for his Department Q. Just about everyone has forgotten a brothel owner who went missing in 1987. But when it comes to Carl’s attention that several other people — a lawyer, a fisherman, a women’s asylum guard — disappeared that same day, he, his assistant, Hafez el-Assad, and his secretary, Rose Knudson, are on the case. It leads them to the bleak island of Sprøgo, where, from 1923 to 1959, Danish women thought to be “pathologically promiscuous” were incarcerated — and some even sterilized.

The Prince of Risk
by Christopher Reich  (Doubleday)

The latest thriller from Reich (“The Devil’s Banker”) begins with a bang — one heard from Washington to Wall Street and around the world. On their way to an urgent late-night meeting with the president, the Treasury secretary, chairman of the Fed and chief exec of the New York Stock Exchange are killed when the car they are in goes out of control on the White House lawn and Secret Service open fire. But just before the vehicle erupts in a fiery explosion, the NYSE exec leaves a final clue — a text to his estranged hedge-fund-manager son, Bobby.

The Time Regulation Institute
by Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar  (Penguin Classics)

More than 50 years after the Turkish author’s death, Tanpinar’s satire on state bureaucracy has been translated into English. In this Kafkaesque tale, we follow the adventures of Hayri Irdal, who, after the establishment of the Turkish Republic and its turn toward modernism, has helped create the Time Regulation Institute — to make sure all clocks in Turkey are set to Western time. The government department uses an absurd system of fines enforced by Irdal and his fellow timekeepers, who include a mystic, a pharmacist/alchemist and an official from the old Ottoman empire.

Posted: New York Post, Sunday, December 29, 2013

 

ENTERTAINMENT REQUIRED READING By Billy Heller Industrial Sublime Modernism and the Transformation of New York’s Rivers, 1900-1940 edited by Kirsten Jensen and Bartholomew F. Bland  (Fordham University Press) From the 1820s through the turn of the 20th century, artists of … Full Story

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